Human rights as per Section 2 (1) (d) of the Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993, means the rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution. The expression "Human Rights" has not been specifically defined in any Declaration or Covenant of the United Nations. Human Rights are generally defined as "those rights which are inherent in our nature and without which we cannot live as human beings". Recognition of these natural rights of human beings is as ancient as the human civilisation. The human rights trace back to the Magna Carta (1215 AD), the Petition of Rights (1627 AD) and the Bill of Rights (1688) in the U. K. The Declaration of Rights of Man (1789) by the French National Assembly influenced the framing of the Constitution of the USA, and in the 19th Century these rights became the basic principles of the Constitution Law of modern civilised States. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was unanimously adopted and proclaimed by the UN General Assembly on December 10,1948. For giving legal form to the provisions the Universal, Social and Cultural Rights came into force on January 3, 1976 and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights came into force on March 23,1976. India was one of the signatories of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and acceded to the two international Covenants by depositing the Instrument of Accession of April 10, 1979. The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action adopted on June 25, 1993 by the World Conference on Human Rights declared that "Human Rights and fundamental freedom are the birth right of all human beings". The Human Rights are now recognised as the limits to the exercise of power by the State over individuals. It was the golden rays of sun enlightening the world of Nineteenth Century to human being to know about Human Right they possess. Worth of human personality began to be realized.

More Details about Commentary on Human Rights

General Information  
Author(s)R P Kataria and Salah Uddin
PublisherOrient Publishing Company
Publish YearJanuary 2011