More Details about MRI in Practice 5th Edition

General Information  
Author(s)Talbot J
PublisherJohn Wiley And Sons
Edition5th Edition
ISBN9781119391968
Pages416
BindingSoftbound
LanguageEnglish
Publish YearSeptember 2018

Description

MRI in Practice continues to be the number one reference book and study guide for the registry review examination for MRI offered by the American Registry for Radiologic Technologists (ARRT).  This latest edition offers in-depth chapters covering all core areas, including: basic principles, image weighting and contrast, spin and gradient echo pulse sequences, spatial encoding, k-space, protocol optimization, artefacts, instrumentation, and MRI safety.

- The leading MRI reference book and study guide.
- Now with a greater focus on the physics behind MRI.
- Offers, for the first time, equations and their explanations and scan tips.
- Brand new chapters on MRI equipment, vascular imaging and safety.
- Presented in full color, with additional illustrations and high-quality MRI images to aid understanding.
- Includes refined, updated and expanded content throughout, along with more learning tips and practical applications.
- Features a new glossary.

MRI in Practice is an important text for radiographers, technologists, radiology residents, radiologists, and other students and professionals working within imaging, including medical physicists and nurses.

TABLE OF CONTENTS


Preface to the Fifth Edition ix         
Acknowledgments xi
List of Acronyms xiii
Equation symbols xvii
About the Companion Website xix

Chapter 1 Basic principles  1        
Introduction 1     
Atomic structure 2            
Motion in the atom 2       
MR active nuclei 4             
The hydrogen nucleus 5
Alignment 6
Net magnetic vector (NMV) 8      
Precession and precessional (Larmor) frequency 10
Precessional phase 13        
Resonance 13        
MR signal 18
The free Induction decay(FDI) signal 20
Pulse timing parameters 22

Chapter 2 Image weighting and contrast 24             
Introduction 24
Image contrast  25
Relaxation 25
T1 recovery 26
T2 decay 27
Contrast mechanisms 31   
Relaxation in different tissues 32  
T1 contrast 36       
T2 contrast 40       
Proton density contrast 41
Weighting 42         
Other contrast mechanisms 51

Chapter 3 Spin echo pulse sequences 58  
Introduction 58    
RF rephasing 59
Conventional spin echo 65
Fast or turbo spin echo FSE/TSE) 68
Inversion recovery (IR) 78
Short tau inversion recovery (STIR) 82
Fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) 84

Chapter 4 Gradient echo pulse sequences 89
Introduction 89
Variable flip angle 90
Gradient rephasing 91
Weighting in gradient echo pulse sequences 94
Coherent or rewound gradient echo 106
Incoherent or spoiled gradient echo 109  
Reverse-echo gradient echo 113    
Balanced gradient echo 119
Fast gradient echo 122
Echo planar imaging (EPI) 122           

Chapter 5 Spatial encoding 128        
Introduction 128
Mechanism of gradients 129             
Gradient axes 134
Slice-selection 135 
Frequency encoding 142     
Phase encoding 145  
Bringing it all together – pulse sequence timing 152

Chapter 6 k-space 158 
Introduction 158     
Part 1 – what is k-space? 159
Part 2 - how are data acquired and how are images created from this data? 165
Part 3 –some important facts about k-space 184
Part 4: how do pulse sequences fill k-space? 197
Part 5: options that fill k-space 199

Chapter 7 Protocol optimization 209              
Introduction 209
Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) 210          
Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) 226 
Spatial resolution 232            
Scan time 237         
Trade-offs 238         
Protocol development and modification 238

Chapter 8 Artefacts 242      
Introduction 242
Phase mismapping 243      
Aliasing 253
Chemical shift artefact 261 
Out-of-phase signal cancellation 265
Magnetic susceptibility artefact 269
Truncation artefact 272       
Cross-excitation/cross-talk 273        
Zipper artefact  275
Shading artefact 276             
Moiré artefact 277 
Magic angle 279
Equipment faults 280            
Flow artefacts 280
Flow-dependent (non-contrast enhanced) angiography 298
Black-blood imaging 303
Phase contrast MRA 304

Chapter 9 Instrumentation 311
Introduction 311
Magnetism 313
Scanner configurations 315
Magnet system 318
Magnet shielding 326
Shim system 328
Gradient system 330
RF system 337
Patient transport system 343
Computer system and graphic user interface 344

Chapter 10 MRI safety 346  
Introduction (and disclaimer) 346
Definitions used in MRI safety 347
Psychological effects 350
The spatially-varying static field 351
Electromagnetic (radiofrequency) fields 357
Time-Varying Gradient Magnetic Fields 363
Cryogens 365
Safety tips 367
Additional resources 368
Glossary 370             

Index 387