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Sherlocks Diseases of the Liver and Biliary System 13th Edition 2019

Books from same Author: James S Dooley and Anna S F Lok and Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao and Massimo Pinzani

Books from same Publisher: Wiley

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  • General Information  
    Author(s)James S Dooley and Anna S F Lok and Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao and Massimo Pinzani
    Edition13th Edition
    Publish YearMarch 2019


    Wiley Sherlocks Diseases of the Liver and Biliary System 13th Edition 2019 by James S Dooley and Anna S F Lok and Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao and Massimo Pinzani

    A new, fully updated edition of the world’s most famous book on liver diseases—with updating of all areas and inclusion of new specific topics, by internationally renowned specialists

    This brand new edition of the classic book on hepatology provides a concise, clearly presented and well-structured review across the whole spectrum of hepatobiliary diseases by some of the world’s leading hepatologists and hepatobiliary specialists. Where many other hepatology textbooks provide detailed accounts of basic science and clinical management, Sherlock's Diseases of the Liver and Biliary System, 13th Edition takes a different approach. Concentrating on the clinical decisions to be taken and the relevant supporting data, it is written and edited to maintain Sheila Sherlock's unique approach, in particular the clarity and layout of the text, and the explanatory figures and tables. The book is thus concise, highly accessible, and generously illustrated with over 700 attractive color figures. There is a pithy approach to each disease based both on evidence and on the authors’ experience, the hallmark of this book. Based on these elements, the 12th edition was awarded first prize in the 2012 British Medical Association Book Awards in the Internal Medicine category.

    Sherlock's Diseases of the Liver and Biliary System begins by introducing the anatomy and function of the liver to readers, continuing then with in-depth coverage of liver biopsy techniques and interpretation, and fibrogenesis and its assessment. There are then chapters on all aspects of liver and biliary disease including acute liver failure, cirrhosis, portal hypertension, hepatic encephalopathy, ascites, hepatitis B and C, alcohol and the liver, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, drug related liver reactions, cholestatic, autoimmune and genetic liver diseases, benign and malignant tumours and not least liver transplantation. There are also chapters on the liver in pregnancy, in the neonate, infancy and childhood, in systemic diseases and in infections. This new edition also features four new individual chapters focusing on coagulation, non-invasive assessment of fibrosis and cirrhosis; vascular diseases of the liver and portal vein thrombosis, and nutrition in liver disease. Digital downloads of the figures from this edition are offered on a companion website.

     - Internationally recognized and loved, world-renowned hepatology book, first published in 1955
     - Takes a one-of-a-kind, clinical approach maintaining Sheila Sherlock’s clarity and legacy of presentation
     - Full colour throughout with 700 illustrative figures
     - Wide faculty of international contributors
    Sherlock's Diseases of the Liver and Biliary System, 13th Edition is an ideal primer in hepatology for students and trainees in hepatology and gastroenterology, and a valuable resource for all specialist gastroenterologists and hepatologists, paediatricians, pathologists, radiologists, general physicians and specialist nurses. 

    List of Contributors xi

    Preface to the Thirteenth Edition xv

    Preface to the First Edition xvi

    1. Anatomy and Function 1
    Jay H. Lefkowitch

    Development of the liver and bile ducts 1

    Anatomy of the liver 1

    Functional liver anatomy: sectors and segments 3

    Anatomical abnormalities of the liver 3

    Anatomy of the biliary tract 4

    Surface marking 5

    Methods of examination 6

    Microanatomy of the liver 7

    Hepatic ultrastructure (electron microscopy) and organelle functions 9

    Functional heterogeneity of the liver 13

    Dynamics of the hepatic microenvironment in physiology and disease 14 Hepatocyte death and regeneration 15 References 16

    2 Liver Function in Health and Disease: Clinical Application of Liver Tests 20
    George Mells and Graeme Alexander

    Bilirubin metabolism 21

    Bile acids 23

    Lipid and lipoprotein metabolism 26

    Amino acid metabolism 28

    Plasma proteins 29

    Carbohydrate metabolism 31

    Markers of hepatocellular injury: the serum transaminases 32

    Markers of cholestasis: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma‐glutamyl transferase (GGT) 33

    Haematology in liver disease 34

    Effects of ageing on the liver 35

    References 36

    3 Biopsy of the Liver 39
    David Patch and Tu Vinh Luong

    Selection and preparation of the patient 39

    Techniques 40

    Risks and complications 43

    Sampling variability  45

    Naked‐eye appearances 46

    Preparation of the specimen 46

    Interpretation: a stepwise diagnostic approach 46

    Indications 48

    Special methods 49

    References 50

    4 Coagulation in Cirrhosis 53
    Nicolas M. Intagliata and Stephen H. Caldwell   

    Introduction  53

    Normal coagulation pathways: a hepatologist’s perspective 54

    The coagulation system in cirrhosis 56

    Bleeding and thrombosis in cirrhosis 57

    Clinical laboratory tests of the coagulation system in cirrhosis 58

    Conclusion 60

    References 60

    5 Acute Liver Failure 62
    Shannan R. Tujios and William M. Lee

    Definition 62

    Epidemiology and aetiologies  63

    Clinical features 66

    Initial investigations 67

    Complications and management of acute liver failure 68

    Specific therapies 73

    Prognosis 75

    Liver transplantation 76

    Conclusion 78

    References 78

    6 Hepatic Fibrogenesis 82
    Meena B. Bansal and Scott L. Friedman

    Introduction 82

    Natural history of hepatic fibrosis 82

    Cellular and molecular features of hepatic fibrosis 83

    Clinical aspects of hepatic fibrosis 89

    Emerging antifibrotic targets and strategies 89

    References 90

    7 Non‐invasive Assessment of Fibrosis and Cirrhosis 93
    Avik Majumdar and Massimo Pinzani

    Introduction 93

    The use of invasive and non‐invasive tests 93

    Non‐invasive tests: specifics 95

    Conclusions 102

    References 103

    8 Hepatic Cirrhosis 107
    P. Aiden McCormick and Rajiv Jalan

    Definition 107

    Causes of cirrhosis 107

    Anatomical diagnosis 108

    Reversible cirrhosis 110

    Clinical cirrhosis: compensated versus

    decompensated 110

    Prognosis (Child–Pugh score, MELD, UKELD) 111

    Clinical and pathological associations 112

    Management 119

    Acute‐on‐chronic liver failure 120

    References 123

    9 Ascites 127
    Guadalupe Garcia‐Tsao

    Mechanisms of ascites formation 127

    Clinical features 130

    Differential diagnosis 132

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis 132

    Treatment of cirrhotic ascites 134

    Hyponatraemia 138

    Refractory ascites 139

    Hepatorenal syndrome 141

    Prognosis 144

    References 145

    10 Hepatic Encephalopathy in Patients with Cirrhosis 151
    Marsha Y. Morgan

    Clinical Features 151

    Classification 153

    Prevalence and consequences 154

    Diagnosis 154

    Diagnostic comorbidities, confounders, and alternatives 160

    Pathogenesis 161

    Management 167

    Prevention 174

    References 174

    11 Portal Hypertension in Cirrhosis 180
    Jaime Bosch and Annalisa Berzigotti

    Introduction 180

    Pathophysiology and rational basis of therapy 185

    Evaluation and diagnosis  188

    Natural history and prognosis 194

    Management 196

    Treatment of portal hypertension according to clinical scenarios 200

    References 205

    12 Vascular Disorders of the Liver and Extrahepatic Portal Hypertension 209
    Dominique‐Charles Valla

    Hepatic artery occlusion 209

    Aneurysms of the hepatic artery 210

    Hepatic arterioportal fistula 211

    Hepatic vascular malformations in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia 212

    Congenital portosystemic shunts – Abernethy malformation  213

    Budd–Chiari syndrome – hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction 214

    Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction – portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis 217

    Portal vein thrombosis in patients with cirrhosis 220

    Idiopathic non‐cirrhotic intrahepatic portal hypertension 221

    Hypoxic hepatitis 223

    Congestive cardiac hepatopathy 223

    Non‐obstructive sinusoidal dilation (NOSD) and peliosis 225

    References 226

    13 Jaundice and Cholestasis 231
    Peter L. M. Jansen

    Introduction  231

    Mechanics of bile formation 233

    Syndrome of cholestasis 238

    Causes of isolated hyperbilirubinaemia 239

    Causes of cholestatic and hepatocellular jaundice 242

    Consequences of cholestasis and their  management 244

    Investigation of the jaundiced patient 247

    Decisions to be made in the jaundiced patient Management of cholestatic disorders 251

    References 251

    14 Gallstones and Benign Biliary Disease 256
    James S. Dooley, Kurinchi S. Gurusamy, and Brian R. Davidson

    Introduction  256

    Imaging the gallbladder and biliary tract 256

    Gallstones 259

    Symptoms and complications of gallstones 264

    Cholecystectomy 266

    Complicated acute gallbladder disease 268

    Percutaneous cholecystostomy 269

    Asymptomatic gallbladder stones 269

    Non‐surgical treatment of gallstones in the gallbladder 269  Common bile duct stones 270 Acute gallstone pancreatitis 272 Large common duct stones 272 Mirizzi syndrome 273

    Intrahepatic gallstones 274

    Haemobilia 274

    Functional gallbladder and sphincter of Oddi disorders 274

    Other gallbladder pathologies 276

    Relationships to malignant change 279

    Benign biliary strictures 279

    Anastomotic strictures following biliary surgery 282

    IgG4‐related sclerosing cholangitis 283

    Chronic pancreatitis 283

    References 284

    15 Malignant Biliary Diseases 294
    Rahul S. Koti and John Bridgewater

    Carcinoma of the gallbladder  294

    Carcinoma of the bile duct (cholangiocarcinoma) 296

    Other biliary malignancies 301 Metastases at the hilum 301

    Ampullary and periampullary carcinomas  301

    Conclusion 305

    References 305

    16 Fibropolycystic Liver Diseases and Congenital Biliary Abnormalities 308
    Nedim Hadžić and Mario Strazzabosco

    Overview 308

    Polycystic liver disease 309

    Fibropolycystic diseases 313

    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease 314

    Congenital hepatic fibrosis 314

    Caroli disease 316

    Microhamartomas (von Meyenberg complexes) Choledochal cysts 318

    Solitary non‐parasitic liver cyst 320

    Congenital anomalies of the biliary tract 321

    References 324

    17 Primary Biliary Cholangitis 328
    David E. J. Jones

    Clinical features 328

    Diagnosis 329

    Epidemiology 333

    Aetiology and pathogenesis 334

    Management 335

    Prognosis 337

    References 338

    18 Sclerosing Cholangitis 341
    Tom Hemming Karlsen and Kirsten Muri Boberg

    Introduction  341

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis 341

    Secondary sclerosing cholangitis 350

    Sclerosing cholangitis in systemic inflammatory

    diseases 351

    References 351

    19 Autoimmune Hepatitis and Overlap Syndromes 355
    Ashnila Janmohamed and Gideon M. Hirschfield

    Introduction  355

    Disease overview  356

    Biological determinants of disease 357

    Disease presentation 359

    Laboratory features 361

    Imaging 363

    Liver biopsy and histological features 363

    Differential diagnosis 365

    Diagnostic dilemmas 366

    Making a diagnosis in practice 367

    Management strategies 368

    Pretreatment and on‐treatment considerations 371

    Treatment challenges and alternative agents 371

    Pregnancy and autoimmune hepatitis 372

    The elderly and autoimmune hepatitis 372

    Childhood‐onset autoimmune hepatitis 373

    Autoimmune hepatitis and liver transplantation 373

    Overlap syndromes 374

    Conclusion 377

    References 377

    20 Enterically Transmitted Viral Hepatitis: Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E 380
    Rinjal D. Brahmbhatt and Anna S. F. Lok

    General features of enterically transmitted viral hepatitis 380

    Hepatitis A virus 385

    Hepatitis E virus 389

    References 391

    21 Hepatitis B 395
    Anna S. F. Lok

    Introduction 395

    Hepatitis B virus 395

    Immune response and mechanisms of hepatic injury 398

    Epidemiology 399

    Prevention 400

    Diagnosis 402

    Clinical manifestations 404

    Natural history 405

    Treatment 408

    HBV and HCV coinfection 414

    HBV and HDV coinfection 414

    HBV and HIV coinfection 414

    References 415

    22 Hepatitis D 421
    Patrizia Farci and Grazia Anna Niro

    History 421

    Hepatitis D virus 421

    Epidemiology 422

    Pathogenesis 425

    Modes of infection and clinical course 425

    Diagnosis 428

    Treatment 429

    Prevention 432

    References 432

    23 Hepatitis C 436
    Geoffrey Dusheiko

    Introduction 436

    Epidemiology 436

    Virology 438

    Pathology and pathogenesis 439

    Diagnostic tests for hepatitis C 440

    Acute hepatitis C 441

    Chronic hepatitis C 441

    References 459

    24 Drug‐Induced Liver Injury 468
    Frank W. DiPaola and Robert J. Fontana

    Introduction 468

    Epidemiology 468

    Complications of DILI 469

    Classification of hepatotoxicity 469

    Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics 469

    Hepatic drug metabolism 471

    Molecular mechanisms in drug‐induced liver injury 472

    Non‐genetic risk factors for DILI 473

    Diagnosis of DILI 474

    Medical management 478

    Pharmacogenetic risk factors 478

    Potential immunological mechanisms in idiosyncratic DILI 479

    Liver injury from specific drugs 479

    References 486

    25 Alcohol and the Liver 494
    Stephen Stewart and Ewan Forrest

    Introduction 494

    Alcohol metabolism 494

    Pathogenesis 496

    Susceptibility 497

    Histological features 498

    Clinical features 501

    Clinical syndromes 503

    Prognosis 504

    Treatment 506

    Conclusions 507

    References 508

    26 Iron Overload States 511
    Paul Adams and Heinz Zoller

    Normal iron physiology 511

    Iron overload and liver damage  515

    Genetic haemochromatosis 516

    Other iron storage diseases 521

    References 523

    27 Wilson Disease 526
    Eve A. Roberts and Karl Heinz Weiss

    Molecular genetics: pathogenesis 527

    Pathology 528

    Clinical picture 529

    Laboratory tests 532

    Genetic strategies 533

    Diagnostic difficulties 533

    Treatment 533

    Prognosis 536

    Non-Wilsonian copper-related cirrhosis 536

    References 536

    28 Non‐Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease 540
    Timothy Hardy and Christopher P. Day

    Introduction 540

    Further definitions, terminology, and diagnosis 541

    Liver biopsy, classification of NAFLD, and non‐ invasive markers of NASH and fibrosis 541

     Clinical features 543

    Laboratory testing 544

    Epidemiology 545

    Ethnic variation in NAFLD 545

    Pathogenesis of NASH 545

    Natural history of NAFLD 550

    NAFLD and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) 551

    Therapy for non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease 552

    Other forms of NAFLD 554

    References 555

    29 Nutrition and Chronic Liver Disease 561
    Manuela Merli

    Introduction 561

    Epidemiology and general characteristics 562

    Causes of malnutrition 562

    Consequences of malnutrition 564

    Diagnosis and assessment 565

    Treatment and management 568

    References 570

    30 Pregnancy and the Liver 572
    Rachel H. Westbrook and Catherine Williamson

    Introduction 572

    Normal physiology in pregnancy 572

    Pregnancy‐related liver diseases 573

    Pre‐existing liver diseases and pregnancy 578

    Liver transplantation and pregnancy 580

    Liver disease coincidentally

    arising with pregnancy 581

    Conclusion 582

    References 582

    31 The Liver in the Neonate, in Infancy, and Childhood 588
    Susan M. Siew and Deirdre A. Kelly

    Investigation of liver disease in children 588

    Neonatal jaundice 589

    Neonatal unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia 589

    Neonatal liver disease (conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia) 591

    Neonatal hepatitis 594

    Inherited disease in the neonate 596

    Genetic cholestatic syndromes 598

    Structural abnormalities: biliary atresia and choledochal cyst 600

    Acute liver failure in infancy 602

    Liver disease in older children 605

    Metabolic disease in older children 607

    Cirrhosis and portal hypertension 613

    Liver transplantation 613

    Tumours of the liver 614

    References 615

    32 The Liver in Systemic Diseases 622
    James S. Dooley and Christopher McNamara

    Collagen‐vascular and autoimmune disorders 622

    Hepatic granulomas 624

    Sarcoidosis 626

    The liver in endocrine disorders 628

    Amyloidosis 629

    Porphyrias 632

    The liver in haemolytic anaemias 634

    The liver in myelo‐ and lymphoproliferative disease 638

    Bone marrow transplantation 639

    Lymphoma 640

    Extramedullary haemopoiesis 642

    Rare haematological disorders that may involve the liver 643

    Lipid storage diseases  643

    Non‐metastatic complications of malignancy 646

    References 646

    33 The Liver in Infections 652
    Sanjay Bhagani and Ian Cropley

    Introduction 652

    Jaundice of infections 652

    Pyogenic liver abscess 652

    Hepatic amoebiasis 655

    Tuberculosis of the liver 657

    Hepatic actinomycosis 659

    Syphilis of the liver  659

    Perihepatitis 660

    Leptospirosis 660

    Relapsing fever 663

    Lyme disease 663

    Rickettsial infections 663

    Fungal infections 664

    Schistosomiasis (bilharzia) 665

    Malaria 667

    Kala‐azar (visceral leishmaniasis) 668

    Echinococcosis (hydatid disease) 668

    Ascariasis 673

    Strongyloides stercoralis 674

    Trichinosis 674

    Toxocara canis (visceral larva migrans) 674

    Liver flukes  675

    References 676

    34 Imaging of the Liver and Diagnostic Approach of Space‐Occupying Lesions 682
    Neil H. Davies and Dominic Yu

    Ultrasound 682

    Computed tomography 683

    Magnetic resonance imaging 685

    Radioisotope scanning 688

    Positron emission tomography 691

    MR spectroscopy 691

    Conclusions and choice of imaging technique 691

    References 691

    35 Benign Liver Tumours 693
    Ian R. Wanless

    Diagnosis of focal liver lesions 693

    Hepatocellular lesions 693

    Biliary and cystic lesions 699

    Mesenchymal tumours 700

    References 701

    36 Primary Malignant Neoplasms of the Liver 705
    Adam Doyle and Morris Sherman

    Hepatocellular carcinoma 705

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma 718

    Other malignant neoplasms of the liver 721

    Other sarcomas 722

    References 722

    37 Hepatic Transplantation 730
    Lindsay Y. King and Carl L. Berg

    Selection of patients 730

    Candidates 732

    Absolute and relative contraindications 737

    General preparation of the patient 738

    Donor selection and operation 738

    The recipient operation 739

    Immunosuppression 742

    Postoperative course 743

    Post‐transplantation complications 744

    Conclusion 751

    References 752

    38 Hepatic Transplantation and HBV, HCV, and HIV Infections 758
    Norah A. Terrault

    Introduction 758

    Hepatitis B and liver transplantation 759

    Hepatitis C and liver transplantation 763

    HIV and liver transplantation 770

    References 773

    Index 781