Wiley's Solomons, Fryhle, Synder Organic Chemistry for NEET and other Medical Entrance Examinations at Meripustak

Wiley's Solomons, Fryhle, Synder Organic Chemistry for NEET and other Medical Entrance Examinations

Books from same Author: M S Chouhan

Books from same Publisher: Wiley India

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    Author(s)M S Chouhan
    PublisherWiley India
    Publish YearNovember 2018


    Wiley India Wiley's Solomons, Fryhle, Synder Organic Chemistry for NEET and other Medical Entrance Examinations by M S Chouhan

    Organic Chemistry for NEET and other Medical Entrance Examinations is an adaptation of the classic book Solomons' Organic Chemistry, which is widely used by the students all over the world. This adapted version provides more concise content that is structured as per the syllabus requirement. It is a definitive text offering for students preparing for NEET-UG, which replaced the All India Pre Medical test (AIPMT) for admission to MBBS and dental courses across the country. The book derives advantage from the time-tested content of the original book and offers assessment as per the entrance examination requirement. It aims to enhance the learning experience and focus on the problem solving skills. About the Author Mahendra Singh Chouhan is a renowned name in the realm of Organic Chemistry. Though a Chemical engineer from Mumbai University TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface to the Original Edition Preface to the Adapted Version About the Authors About the Adapting Author 1 Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry Part I: Bonding and Molecular Structure 1.1 Life and the Chemistry of Carbon Compounds 1.2 Chemical Bonds: The Octet Rule 1.3 Isomers: Different Compounds that Have the Same Molecular Formula 1.4 How to Write and Interpret Structural Formulas 1.5 Resonance Theory 1.6 The Structure of Methane and Ethane: sp3 Hybridization 1.7 The Structure of Ethene (Ethylene): sp2 Hybridization 1.8 The Structure of Ethyne (Acetylene): sp Hybridization 1.9 How to Predict Molecular Geometry: The Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Model 1.9A Methane Part II: Families of Carbon Compounds 1.10 Classification of Organic Compounds 1.11 Hydrocarbons: Representative Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes and Aromatic Compounds 1.12 Functional Groups 1.13 Alkyl Halides or Haloalkanes 1.14 Alcohols and Phenols 1.15 Ethers 1.16 Amines 1.17 Aldehydes and Ketones 1.18 Carboxylic Acids, Esters and Amides 1.19 Nitriles 1.20 Summary of Important Families of Organic Compounds 1.21 Nomenclature of Organic Compounds 1.22 Polar Covalent Bonds 1.23 Physical Properties and Molecular Structure Part III: An Introduction to Organic Reactions and their Mechanisms 1.24 Acid–Base Reactions 1.25 How to Use Curved Arrows in Illustrating Reactions 1.26 Heterolysis of Bonds to Carbon: Carbocations and Carbanions 1.27 Homolytic Fission of Bonds 1.28 Electron Displacement Effects in Organic Compounds 1.29 The Strength of Brønsted–Lowry Acids and Bases: Ka and pKa 1.30 Relationships between Structure and Acidity 1.32 The Effect of the Solvent on Acidity 1.33 A Mechanism for an Organic Reaction 2 Isomerism 2.1 Types of Isomerism 2.2 Geometrical Isomerism 2.3 Chirality and Stereochemistry 2.4 Enantiomers and Chiral Molecules 2.5 Molecules having One Chirality Center are Chiral 2.6 How to Test for Chirality: Planes of Symmetry 2.7 Naming Enantiomers: The R,S-System 2.8 Properties of Enantiomers: Optical Activity 2.9 The Synthesis of Chiral Molecules 2.10 Molecules with More than One Chirality Center 2.11 Fischer Projection Formulas 2.12 Stereoisomerism of Cyclic Compounds 2.13 Relating Configurations through Reactions in Which No Bonds to the Chirality Center are Broken 2.14 Chiral Molecules that do not Possess a Chirality 2.15 Conformational Isomerism 3 Purification and Characterization of Organic 3.1 Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds 3.2 Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds 3.3 Quantitative Analysis 3.4 Determination of Empirical Formula of the 4 Alkanes and Cycloalkanes 4.1 Introduction to Alkanes and Cycloalkanes 4.2 Shapes of Alkanes 4.3 How to Name Alkanes and Alkyl Groups: The IUPAC System 4.4 How to Name Cycloalkanes 4.5 Physical Properties of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes 4.6 Isomerism 4.7 Synthesis of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes 4.8 How to Gain Structural Information from Molecular Formulas and the Index of Hydrogen Deficiency 4.9 Chemical Reactions of Alkanes 4.10 Conformations 4.11 The Relative Stabilities of Cycloalkanes: Ring Strain 4.12 Conformations of Cyclohexane: The Chair and the Boat 4.13 Disubstituted Cycloalkanes: Cis–Trans Isomerism 5 Alkenes and Alkynes Part I: Alkenes 5.1 Structure of the Double Bond 5.2 Isomerism 5.3 How to Name Alkenes and Cycloalkenes 5.4 The (E )–(Z ) System for Designating Alkene Diastereomers 5.5 Relative Stabilities of Alkenes 5.6 Cycloalkenes 5.7 Synthesis of Alkenes by Hydrogenation of Alkynes 5.8 Synthesis of Alkenes via Elimination Reactions 5.9 Carbocation Stability and the Occurrence of Molecular Rearrangements 5.10 Hydrogenation of Alkenes 5.11 Addition Reactions of Alkenes 5.12 Oxidation of Alkenes: Syn 1,2-Dihydroxylation Part II: Alkynes 5.13 Structure of the Triple Bond 5.14 Isomerism 5.15 How to Name Alkynes 5.16 The Acidity of Terminal Alkynes 5.17 Methods of Preparation 5.18 Chemical Reactivity Part III: Conjugated Unsaturated Systems 5.19 The Stability of the Allyl Radical 5.20 The Allyl Cation 5.21 Alkadienes and Polyunsaturated Hydrocarbons 5.22 1,3-Butadiene: Electron Delocalization 5.23 The Stability of Conjugated Dienes 5.24 Allylic Substitution and Allylic Radicals 5.25 Electrophilic Attack on Conjugated Dienes: 1,4-Addition 5.26 The Diels–Alder Reaction: A 1,4-Cycloaddition Reaction of Dienes 6 Aromatic Compounds and their Reactions 6.1 The Discovery of Benzene 6.2 Nomenclature of Benzene Derivatives 6.4 The Thermodynamic Stability of Benzene 6.5 Modern Theories of the Structure of Benzene 6.6 Hückel’s Rule: The 4n + 2π Electron Rule 6.7 Other Aromatic Compounds 6.8 Preparation of Arenes 6.9 Physical Properties of Arenes 6.10 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions 6.11 A General Mechanism for Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution 6.12 Halogenation of Benzene 6.13 Nitration of Benzene 6.14 Sulfonation of Benzene 6.15 Friedel–Crafts Reactions 6.16 Substituents Can Affect Both the Reactivity of the Ring and the Orientation of the Incoming Group 6.17 How Substituents Affect Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: A Closer Look 6.18 Reactions of the Side Chain of Alkylbenzenes 6.20 Addition Reactions 6.21 Reduction of Aromatic Compounds 6.22 Synthetic Applications 7 Alkyl and Aryl Halides Part I: Alkyl Halides (Haloalkanes) 7.2 Nomenclature 7.3 Physical Properties of Alkyl Halides 7.4 Preparation of Alkyl Halides 7.5 Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions of Alkyl Halides 7.6 Elimination Reactions of Alkyl Halides 7.7 Overall Summary–Substitution and Elimination Reactions 7.8 Reaction of Alkyl Halides with Metals 7.9 Reduction of Alkyl Halides to Hydrocarbons 7.10 Polyhalogen Compounds Part II: Aryl Halides (Haloarenes) 7.11 Nomenclature 7.12 Preparation of Aryl Halides 7.13 Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution in Aryl Halides 7.14 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reaction 7.15 Reaction with Metals 8 Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers 8.1 Structure and Classification 8.2 Structures of Functional Groups 8.3 Nomenclature 8.4 Physical Properties 8.5 Synthesis of Alcohols 8.6 Synthesis of Phenols 8.7 Synthesis of Ethers 8.8 Reactions of Alcohols 8.9 Reactions of Phenols as Acids 8.10 Reactions of Ethers 8.11 Distinction Between 1°, 2°, 3° Alcohols 9 Aldehydes and Ketones 9.1 Nomenclature of Aldehydes and Ketones 9.2 Structure of the Carbonyl Group 9.3 Physical Properties 9.4 Synthesis of Aldehydes 9.5 Synthesis of Ketones 9.6 Miscellaneous Methods for Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones 9.7 Nucleophilic Addition to the Carbon–Oxygen Double Bond 9.8 The Addition of Alcohols: Hemiacetals and Acetals 9.9 The Addition of Hydrogen Cyanide: Cyanohydrins 9.10 The Addition of Sodium Hydrogen Sulfite 9.11 Addition of Grignard Reagents 9.12 The Addition of Primary and Secondary Amines 9.13 The Addition of Ylides: The Wittig Reaction 9.14 Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones 9.15 Oxidation of Aldehydes and Ketones 9.16 The Acidity of the α Hydrogens of Carbonyl Compounds: Enolate Anions 9.17 Keto and Enol Tautomers 9.18 Reactions via Enols and Enolates 9.19 Lithium Enolates 9.20 Aldol Reactions: Addition of Enolates and Enols to Aldehydes and Ketones 9.21 Crossed Aldol Condensations 9.22 Cyclizations via Aldol Condensations 9.23 Other Important Reactions 9.24 Summary of Aldehyde and Ketone Reactions 10 Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives 10.1 Structure of the Carboxyl Group 10.2 Nomenclature and Physical Properties 10.3 Preparation of Carboxylic Acids 10.4 Chemical Properties of Carboxylic Acids 10.5 Acyl Substitution: Nucleophilic Addition–Elimination at the Acyl Carbon 10.6 Acyl Chlorides 10.7 Carboxylic Acid Anhydrides 10.8 Esters 10.9 Amides 10.10 Decarboxylation of Carboxylic Acids 10.11 Summary of the Reactions of Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives 11 Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Part I: Amines 11.1 Nomenclature of Amines 11.2 Physical Properties and Structure of Amines 11.3 Preparation of Amines 11.4 Basicity of Amines: Amine Salts 11.5 Reactions of Amines 11.6 Reactions of Amines with Nitrous Acid 11.7 Reactions of Amines with Sulfonyl Chlorides: Test for Amines 11.8 Eliminations Involving Ammonium Compounds Part II: Arenediazonium Salts 11.9 Preparation of Arenediazonium Salts 11.10 Replacement Reactions of Arenediazonium Salts 11.11 Coupling Reactions of Arenediazonium Salts Part III: Cyanides and Isocyanides 11.12 Preparation and Properties of Cyanides and Isocyanides 11.13 Summary of Reactions of Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Part I: Carbohydrates 12.1 Classification of Carbohydrates 12.2 Monosaccharides 12.3 Disaccharides 12.4 Polysaccharides 12.5 Other Biologically Important Sugars 12.6 Sugars that Contain Nitrogen Part II: Amino Acids and Proteins 12.7 Amino Acids 12.8 Polypeptides and Proteins 12.9 Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structures of Proteins 12.10 Denaturation of Proteins 12.11 Introduction to Enzymes 12.12 Hormones 12.13 Vitamins Part III: Nucleic Acids 12.14 Nucleotides and Nucleosides 12.15 Deoxyribonucleic Acid: DNA 12.16 RNA and Protein Synthesis Part IV: Lipids 12.17 Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols 12.18 Terpenes and Terpenoids 12.19 Phospholipids and Cell Membranes 12.20 Waxes 13 Polymers 13.1 Some Terms Related to Polymers 13.2 Classification of Polymers 13.3 Addition Polymerization or Chain-Growth Polymerization 13.4 Preparation of Some Important Addition Polymers 13.5 Condensation Polymerization or Step-Growth Polymerization 13.6 Natural Rubber 13.7 Synthetic Rubbers 13.8 Molecular Mass of Polymers 13.9 Biodegradable Polymers 13.10 Polymers of Commercial Importance 14 Chemistry in Everyday Life 14.1 Drugs and Their Classification 14.2 Drug–Target Interaction 14.3 Therapeutic Action of Different Classes of Drugs 14.4 Chemicals in Food 14.5 Cleansing Agents Solved Examples Solved Previous Years’ NEET Questions Additional Objective Questions Answer Key Hints and Explanations Index