Description

The sections of this book are designed to provide an introduction to theory followed by a series of practical applications. The suggested prerequisites are circuit theory, electromagnetics and power systems analysis. The first three chapters examine the electrical fundamentals of resistance, inductance and capacitance as applied to the human body. This is followed by an analysis of the effects of current on the human body. Safety in substation grounding is the first practical application, focusing on step and touch potentials. The multi-grounded distribution system and the effect of ground return currents are examined next. The topic of arc flash hazard analysis is discussed, based upon industry standard IEEE 1584-2002. About the Author Peter Sutherland serves as lead consultant at GE Energy Services, in Schenectady, New York. He is a well-respected industry expert who has taught several courses on the topic. He is a fellow of IEEE. TABLE OF CONTENTS List Of Figures List Of Tables Preface Acknowledgments Chapter 1 Mathematics Used In Electromagnetism 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Numbers 1.3 Mathematical Operations with Vectors 1.4 Calculus with Vectors--The Gradient 1.5 Divergence, Curl, and Stokes' Theorem 1.6 Maxwell's Equations Chapter 2 Electrical Safety Aspects Of The Resistance Property Of Materials 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Hazards Caused by Electrical Resistance 2.3 Resistance and Conductance 2.4 Example--Trunk of a Human Body 2.5 Example--Limb of a Human Body 2.6 Power and Energy Flow 2.7 Sheet Resistivity 2.8 Example--Square of Dry Skin 2.9 Spreading Resistance 2.10 Example--Circle of Dry Skin 2.11 Particle Conductivity 2.12 Examples--Potassium, Sodium, and Chlorine Ions 2.13 Cable Resistance Chapter 3 Capacitance Phenomena 3.1 Fundamentals of Capacitance 3.2 Capacitance and Permittivity 3.3 Capacitance in Electrical Circuits 3.4 Capacitance of Body Parts 3.5 Electrical Hazards of Capacitance 3.6 Capacitance of Cables Chapter 4 Inductance Phenomena 4.1 Inductance in Electrical Theory 4.2 Inductance of Wires 4.3 Example--Inductance of a Conductor 4.4 Example--Inductance of Trunk and Limb 4.5 Inductors or Reactors 4.6 Skin Effect 4.7 Cable Inductance 4.8 Surge Impedance 4.9 Bus Bar Impedance Calculations Chapter 5 Circuit Model Of The Human Body 5.1 Calculation of Electrical Shock Using the Circuit Model of the Body 5.2 Frequency Response of the Human Body Chapter 6 Effect Of Current On The Human Body 6.1 Introduction to Electrical Shock 6.2 Human and Animal Sensitivities to Electric Current 6.3 Human Body Impedance 6.4 Effects of Various Exposure Conditions 6.5 Current Paths Through the Body 6.6 Human Response to Electrical Shock Varies with Exposure Conditions, Current Magnitude, and Duration 6.7 Medical Imaging and Simulations Chapter 7 Fundamentals Of Ground Grid Design 7.1 Introduction to Ground Grid Design 7.2 Summary of Ground Grid Design Procedures 7.3 Example Design from IEEE Standard 80 Chapter 8 Safety Aspects Of Ground Grid Operation And Maintenance 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Effects of High Fault Currents 8.3 Damage or Failure of Grounding Equipment 8.4 Recommendations Chapter 9 Grounding Of Distribution Systems 9.1 Stray Currents in Distribution Systems 9.2 Three-Phase Multi grounded Neutral Distribution Line 9.3 Secondary Systems: 120/240 V Single Phase 9.4 Remediation of Stray-Current Problems 9.5 Grounding and Overvoltages in Distribution Systems 9.6 High-Resistance Grounding of Distribution Systems 9.6.1 Methods of Determining Charging Current Chapter 10 Arc Flash Hazard Analysis 10.1 Introduction to Arc Flash Hazards 10.2 Factors Affecting the Severity of Arc Flash Hazards 10.3 Example Arc Flash Calculations 10.4 Remediation of Arc Flash Hazards 10.5 Coordination of Low-Voltage Breaker Instantaneous Trips for Arc Flash Hazard Reduction 10.6 Low-Voltage Transformer Secondary Arc Flash Protection using Fuses Chapter 11 Effect Of High Fault Currents On Protection And Metering 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Current Transformer Saturation 11.3 Saturation of Low-Ratio CTs 11.4 Testing of Current Transformer Saturation 11.5 Effect of High Fault Currents on Coordination 11.6 Protective Relay Ratings and Settings 11.7 Effects of Fault Currents on Protective Relays 11.8 Methods for Upgrading Protection Systems Chapter 12 Effects Of High Fault Currents On Circuit Breakers 12.1 Insufficient Interrupting Capability 12.2 High Voltage Air Circuit Breakers 12.3 Vacuum Circuit Breakers 12.4 SF6 Circuit Breakers 12.5 Loss of Interruption Medium 12.6 Interrupting Ratings of Switching Devices 12.7 Circuit Breakers 12.8 Fuses 12.9 Case Studies 12.10 Low-Voltage Circuit Breakers 12.11 Testing of Low-Voltage Circuit Breakers 12.12 Testing of High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Chapter 13 Mechanical Forces And Thermal Effects In Substation Equipment Due To High Fault Currents 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Definitions 13.3 Short-Circuit Mechanical Forces on Rigid Bus Bars 13.4 Dynamic Effects of Short Circuits 13.5 Short-Circuit Thermal Effects 13.6 Flexible Conductor Buses 13.7 Force Safety Devices 13.8 Substation Cable and Conductor Systems 13.9 Distribution Line Conductor Motion 13.10 Effects of High Fault Currents on Substation Insulators 13.11 Effects of High Fault Currents on Gas-Insulated Substations (GIS) Chapter 14 Effect Of High Fault Currents On Transmission Lines 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Effect of High Fault Current on Non-Ceramic Insulators (NCI) 14.3 Conductor Motion Due to Fault Currents 14.4 Calculation of Fault Current Motion for Horizontally Spaced Conductors 14.5 Effect of Conductor Shape 14.6 Conductor Equations of Motion 14.7 Effect of Conductor Stretch 14.8 Calculation of Fault Current Motion for Vertically Spaced Conductors 14.9 Calculation Procedure 14.10 Calculation of Tension Change with Motion 14.11 Calculation of Mechanical Loading on Phase-to-Phase Spacers 14.12 Effect of Bundle Pinch on Conductors and Spacers Chapter 15 Lightning And Surge Protection 15.1 Surge Voltage Sources and Wave shapes 15.2 Surge Propagation, Refraction, and Reflection 15.3 Insulation Withstand Characteristics and Protection 15.4 Surge Arrester Characteristics 15.5 Surge Arrester Application References Index

More Details about Principles of Electrical Safety

General Information  
Author(s)Peter E. Sutherland
PublisherWiley India
ISBN9788126574261
Pages408
BindingPaperback
LanguageEnglish
Publish YearNovember 2018